June 23, 2022

how a pharmacist can prevent this abuse

A prescription is the piece of paper on which the specialist writes a request for a medicine and which is given to a physicist or a medicine specialist to obtain a medicine. A prescription is a medicine that a specialist advises the patient to take.

Authors:-

Haseeb Ahmad, Dr. Ambreen Aleem, Dr. Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Dr. Waseem Ashraf and Mam Amna Manzoor

Membership:

FACULTY OF PHARMACY BAHAUDDIN ZAKARIYA UNIVERSITY, MULTAN.

Prescription abuse:-

Abuse of prescription or doctor-approved drugs involves choosing drugs in this way or dosing outside of the recommendation; using another person’s remedy, regardless of whether it is for unaffected clinical protest as torment; or proceed with a prescription to experience ecstasy. The non-medical exploitation of licensed prescription drug periods also alludes to these categorizations of mishandling. The three most widely used classes of drugs are:

Opioids—classically approved for treating pain

Central nervous system [CNS] depressants (this sort includes sedatives, tranquilizers and hypnotics) — used to treat problems with tension and rest

Stimulatings– most commonly approved to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Physician recommended drug abuse can have genuine clinical results. The increase in the abuse of drugs prescribed by physicians over the past 15 years is reflected in an increase in formal emergency department visits, overdose deaths related to 2 in 5 physician-suggested medications, and treatment admissions for cause problems from professionally prescribed drugs, the most serious of which is addiction. .

Over-the-counter medications:-

Over-the-Counter (OTC) are drugs marketed directly

to a buyer without prerequisites for a solution of one

competent medical care, unlike prescription drugs,

which could be provided only to customers with

an authentic order.

Photo of the packaging of four UK registered medicines, showing the symbols if they are Prescription Medicines (POM) or Pharmacy Medicines (P) and also showing their Product License Numbers.

Over-the-counter medications with generally potential for misuse: Many over-the-counter suppositories have the potential for abuse. Medications commonly diverted include tranquilizers, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, antihistamines, cough suppressants, expectorants, dextromethorphan, caffeine, diuretics, sildenafil, and laxatives and anabolic steroids. Based on worldwide testing for over-the-counter drug abuse, narcotic recipe products, and cough/cold products containing dextromethorphan, tranquilizers, antihistamines, painkillers, laxatives, and hypnotics have been shown to have latent abuse. Over-the-counter codeine or other opiate-containing items and over-the-counter cough and cold medicines are most implicated in abuse. In the United States, codeine is not available over the counter. Nevertheless, it is a key medicine with prospects of abuse in other countries. Over-the-counter codeine-based painkillers were recorded as the most commonly abused drug.

Number of people who misuse professionally prescribed drugs: –

Non-medical use of recommendations or over-the-counter medications involves the client using them for reasons other than those demonstrated in the recommendation writing or on the base label. The abuse of these drugs is a public problem. Internationally, illicit consumption of suggested and over-the-counter drugs has steadily increased.

Among individuals aged 12 or over (established in 2020):-

  • 8% (about 16.1 million people) detailed having abused any prescription for non-clinical reasons in the past 12 months.
  • 3% (about 5.1 million people) have abused painkillers in the past 12 months.
  • 2% (about 6.2 million people) have abused sedatives or tranquilizers beyond a year.
  • 8% (about 5.1 million people) abused stimulants beyond a year.

Source: – 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

Chronic Drug Use Effects:-

Recreational use of over-the-counter medications can also alter brain chemistry over time. Ultimately, the user builds resistance to the drugs, requiring more of the substance to achieve the past effects.

Normal Panels chronic over-the-counter drug abuse includes:

  • Mood swings
  • Memory loss
  • Changes in conceptions of hunger and drowsiness
  • Lack of interest in standard hobbies and exercises

Those dependent on over-the-counter medications may develop withdrawal symptoms when they stopped using. Normal symptoms over-the-counter medication withdrawal options include:

  • Restlessness
  • Anxiety
  • Confusion
  • Irritability
  • Changes in temperament (mood)

Drug treatment:-

Those who use chronic over-the-counter drugs have many treatment choices. Individual and group treatments, psychological well-being counseling and psychotherapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCC) overall are compelling treatment strategies.

Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation programs allow those recovering from chronic over-the-counter drug addiction to get and stay calm. Having a drug recovery program in place can greatly reduce the risk of backtracking.

Role of the pharmacist in prevention: –

Pharmacists are the main resource when acquiring prescriptions. Medication specialists can help patients understand instructions for taking their prescriptions as well as how medications affect their condition. Additionally, by being alert to prescription distortions or changes, pharmacists can fulfill key safety lines by noticing risky cases in the use of consultant-approved medications. They are needed to screen over-the-counter drug use among a particular population. For example, due to elderly patients, who take different drugs, the pharmacist must be more careful. Additionally, customers requesting regular refills should also be verified, including used over-the-counter prescriptions. Pharmacists can be more active in monitoring over-the-counter prescription misuse by using their experimental capabilities, providing pronounced and composed medical data, and building trust among customers. Platforms similar to Doctor Prescribed Drugs verify a client’s evidence when filling in Doctor Approved Drugs. Whereas in the event that a comparable program was systematized for over-the-counter drugs, the individual would usually have to go to a similar pharmacy. Therefore, the execution of such a program may not even be hampered.

A few techniques used by drug specialists to reduce over-the-counter prescription abuse were recommended. It is shown that 62% of medicine specialists disclosed the measures taken to control over-the-counter medicine abuse:-

  • keep the elements involved hidden
  • Inquire about the acquisition of these items by the drug specialist
  • Refusal to sell mixed items

A few different procedures used and advertised by pharmacists to reduce over-the-counter prescription abuse were referral to a physician, referral to the drug and alcohol addiction team, and inclusion of drug specialists in abuse reduction platforms.


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